Protecting civilians in armed conflict


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A 30-year conflict between the Government of Indonesia and the Aceh-Sumatra National Liberation Front/Free Aceh Movement (ASNLF/GAM) was brought to an end when a peace agreement was signed in 2005 giving the province more autonomy.

An estimated 15,000 people were killed during the conflict involving the Indonesian military, pro-Government militia troops and ASNLF/GAM forces, with all sides accused of human rights violations. A number of incidents involving improvised explosive devices (IEDs) were also reported.


Geneva Call engaged the ASNLF/GAM on the anti-personnel (AP) mine ban from 2002 to 2005, until the signing of the peace deal resulted in the group disarming.


Banning AP mines

Geneva Call held several discussions with the ASNLF/GAM leadership, which repeatedly denied allegations of use of AP mines and victim-activated IEDs by its forces and declared support for the ban, citing the dangers these weapons would pose to its own combatants, as well as to civilians and animals.

In 2004, the ASNLF/GAM attended the First Meeting of Signatories to Geneva Call’s Deed of Commitment as an observer. At the meeting, the ASNLF/GAM publicly stated that it “look[s] forward in the future to be also a signatory to the Deed of Commitment once all the procedural matters are settled“. This referred to the armed non-State actor’s (ANSA) concern that it would be impossible for independent monitors to verify any allegations that might be made against the movement as Aceh had been closed to foreigners since the declaration of martial law in 2003.

Prohibiting sexual violence and gender discrimination

The ASNLF/GAM sent a delegation to Geneva Call’s Workshop of Women Combatants in Armed Opposition Groups in 2004. During this meeting, 32 women combatants or former combatants from 18 ANSAs met with humanitarian actors and academics. The event allowed participants to share their experiences as women within ANSAs and to discuss their potential roles in promoting international humanitarian norms.

Main achievements

  • ASNLF/GAM declared support for the ban on AP mines and reinforced its internal policy in this regard.
  • It also participated in dialogue on the role of women combatants in promoting humanitarian norms.


In Indonesia, Geneva Call works or has worked with the following armed non-State actors:

Organization Active Thematic areas
Landmine ban Child protection Gender issues Humanitarian norms
Aceh-Sumatra National Liberation Front/Free Aceh Movement (ASNLF/GAM) No
Free Papua Movement (OPM) Yes
Click on the ticks to display the signed Deeds of Commitment

The ANSA is being engaged by Geneva Call on this thematic area


The ANSA was engaged by Geneva Call on this thematic area


The ANSA has signed the Deed of Commitment on this thematic area

  • is a directory of armed non-State actors commitments. Check out the documents concerning this country on
Strategy 2017-2019


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